International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review <table style="border-style: dotted;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 100%;"> <p><strong>International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic review (IJSSER) (</strong>Online ISSN:<a href="tel:2706-9346">2706-9346</a>) is a double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal that encourages the latest research on the social sciences, and economics globally. The journal aims to publish quality research and provide access to international libraries to promote the original content in the field of social sciences and economics. IJSSER is a non-profit, academic journal that accepts the high quality theoretical or empirical works throughout the world that contribute genuine knowledge and research in the fields of social sciences and economics. <br /><strong><em>IJSSER is an Open Access Journal</em>.</strong> So, readers can access it freely.</p> <p><a href="">Make a Submission</a> <a href="">Authors Guidelines</a> <a href="">Journal Template</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Aims Academics Journals en-US International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review 2706-9346 <p>IJSSER is open access journal under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0</a> which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction. All the published materials in IJSSER are free of charge. Researchers and authors can download the published article in IJSSER and allow them to read, copy, distribute, submit to their institution’s library, and any other repositories without the remix. As well as, they are must distribute the material under the same license as original published material.</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong></p> <p>IJSSER has an open access policy to its content to make the research freely available, easy to access, and support to the global exchange knowledge under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0</a> . Researchers and academicians are allowed to download, copy, print, and access the link for the full text of the published material without any charges. </p> Basis and Practices of Restorative Justice: The Case of the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System <p><strong>Purpose of the study: The </strong>Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime as an offense against the state. and is not allowed the participation of the victim and the community and also win-loss outcome. Scholars have established the concept of restorative justice which views crime as a violation of the relationship among the victims, offenders, and community. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to assess the legal and institutional basis and practice of restorative justice in Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study employs a qualitative research approach and descriptive research design. The population of this study includes the victims, offenders, criminal justice system components, and traditional dispute resolvers. Data were collected through document review and the interview of five individuals selected through the purposive sampling technique. The collected data was then analyzed thematically.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings: </strong>The results show that different governmental institutions such as the house of the federation, peace Minister, police, court, general attorney, and reconciliation commission have a legal recognition to apply restorative justice values and principles. Meanwhile, traditional conflict resolution mechanisms and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms have defector recognition to resolve criminal cases.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> The models of restorative justice in Ethiopia entail compromise, withdrawal of charge, probation, pardon, amnesty, plea bargaining, shuttle diplomacy, suspect rehabilitation, and reconciliation based on different laws. Therefore, the house of people representative should enact a comprehensive law on restorative justice. The police and general attorney should create awareness about restorative justice.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> Restorative justice has many benefits, but the concept itself has not been studied in detail. This study is the first of its kind to examine restorative justice in detail in the context of Ethiopia.</p> Negesse asnake Ayalew Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 01 11 10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.53 Human Capabilities and Instrumental Freedoms Relationship: An Empirical Investigation <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong> In <em>Development as freedom</em>, Amartya Sen confirmed the crucial "instrumental" role of five kinds of freedoms in the promotion of capabilities and therefore in the process of human development in general. These are political freedoms, economic facilities, transparency guarantees, social opportunities, and protective security. This paper has three empirical objectives: 1) to measure the effect of instrumental freedoms on capabilities, 2) to verify if this effect becomes stronger once instrumental freedoms are interconnected, and 3) to verify whether this relationship is moderated by the level of economic development achieved by each country.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> To achieve these three objectives, this article confronts the second-order construct of "instrumental freedoms" (as an exogenous variable) with five first-order constructs (as endogenous variables). The five endogenous latent variables reflect the capabilities of health, education, housing, employment, and communication and mobility at the level of the sixty countries selected as the analysis samples. The estimation of the hierarchical structural model is done using the partial least squares approach and the repeated indicator method.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong> This study highlights three major results: 1) The existence of a significant effect of instrumental freedoms on the five relevant capabilities selected. 2) When instrumental freedoms interconnect, they reinforce each other and their effect on human capabilities becomes stronger. 3) The multi-group analysis suggests that instrumental freedoms positively and significantly impact human capabilities in the same way in both developed and developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Research implications:</strong> Freedom plays a "constitutive" and "instrumental" role in the development process. To provide people with the freedom to live according to their aspirations, public policies must be empowering. In other words, they should improve the instrumental perspective of at least three essential freedoms: political freedoms, economic facilities, and transparency guarantees.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> Apart from the works which attempted to operationalize Amartya Sen's capability approach, the relationship between instrumental freedoms and human capabilities has not been the subject of empirical studies. This paper is intended as a contribution to this field of investigation.</p> Nour Eddine Aguenane Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 12 21 10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.65 Increasing Transparency for Consumers Showing Probabilities of Virtual Items in Loot Boxes in Digital Games <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong> This study is motivated by the increasing public discussions about loot boxes. There are similarities between loot boxes and gambling. Digital games often cross the line between skill-based games and gambling.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The presented data in this study is based on an online survey from July 2019 in Germany, Hungary, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong> This paper discusses the public acceptance of a possible loot box regulation. Often, the probabilities of items inside loot boxes are not shown. This paper discusses the acceptance of mandatory showing of loot box probabilities and finds that there is a major agreement to the possible increase of transparency.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations:</strong> The presented data only applies to Germany, Hungary, South Africa, Thailand, the UK, and the USA in July 2019. Findings from this study cannot be transferred to other countries. There might be further regional differences in other countries. Further research of consumer preferences for possible regulations can help in determining useful regulations for digital games with loot boxes.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> Knowledge in this research field is still limited. There are yet adequate studies that explore consumer preferences concerning game design. This applies especially for the field of consumer preferences concerning the showing of probabilities of virtual items inside loot boxes.</p> Philipp Christian Lohse Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 22 27 10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.68 The Vital Role of Pink Marketing in the Creation of Women Loyalty <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong> This study stresses the vital role of pink marketing in the creation of women loyalty. The study revolves around the fundamental question: Does the pink marketing mix of Maybelline New York beauty products have any critical effect on women's loyalty in the Kurdistan Region?</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The article applies an analytical-descriptive approach. The data were composed by a questionnaire circulated to 125 women consumers at local shopping malls in Erbil province, Iraq. Statistical tools were used to test and analyze the data using SPSS software. including: descriptive statistics to provide a comprehensive description of the sample in terms of demographics. Arithmetic mean and standard deviations to judge the response of sample items to study variables, Cronbach Alpha to ensure the validity of the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient test to recognize the nature of the relationship between the variables studied.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong> The result showed that pink marketing mix does have a positive relationship with loyalty. Pink product, Pink price, Pink promotion, and place all have modest to weak correlation with loyalty.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> This article focused on small group of women shoppers and one brand of cosmetics in its survey thus, the findings can't be comprehensive to cover the whole region due to the restrict movement because of COVID 19 outbreak in the region.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study: </strong>The findings of the study donates to a full comprehension of viable pink marketing mix for achieving women shoppers' loyalty precisely in the cosmetics and beauty supplies industry, and propose a direction to marketers on how to move women shoppers to be loyal.</p> Aram Hanna Massoudi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 28 37 10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.74