Environmental and Socio-economic Impact Assessment in Hazaribag Area of Dhaka for Tannery Relocation

1. INTRODUCTION

Though an agriculture-dominated country, Bangladesh’s development started centring in the capital, Dhaka, flourishing in the 17th century (Azmat, 2009; Islam, 2014). Resulting, significant industrialization occurred in this city. The Leather industry in Hazaribag was first established in 1960, and the industry expanded after the independence of Bangladesh in 1971 (Khan, 2017; Azom et al., 2012). From 1970 to 1995, the percentage of low to middle-income countries contributing to the global production of light and heavy leather materials increased from 35% to 56% and 26% to 56%, respectively (Whitehead et al., 2019). When rapid growth of industrialization occurs, centring only a particular region, the pollution cannot be constrained (Whitehead et al., 2018; Iqbal and Swapnil, 2017). Besides, considering the level of toxicity and the number of industrial waste, tannery effluents are topped to pollute the environment and hamper human health and mind argued by Whitehead et al. (2018). In Pakistan, almost 600 tanneries are located in 3 major cities (Karachi, Kasur, and Sialkot), increasing exposure to the environment and human health (Syed et al., 2010). Similar consequences are also found in Brazil, China, and India (Sankar, 2006).

The flourishing of the tannery industry in Hazaribag drastically affected the environment with the untreated effluents discharged into the drains, rivers, and lakes. These effluents are leached into the groundwater or are emitted into the environment as particulate matter and augmenting the accumulation rate of heavy metals in sediments, biota, and ultimately humans (DoE, 2003; Koukal et al., 2004; Hasan et al., 2019; Hossain, 2008; Huq, 1998). Poor environmental controls and the accelerated establishment rate of tanneries in Hazaribag fueled Dhaka city’s pollution scenario (Tinni et al., 2015).

In the premises of the tanneries in Hazaribagh, more than 0.2 million occupants were directly exposed to the hazards of tannery pollutants, and the rest of the population was affected via dietary intake and inhalation of pollutants (WHO, 2001; Fatema et al., 2018; Mohiuddin et al., 2017).

1.1. Background of the study

The first tannery industry in Dhaka was established a century ago (Nur-E-Alam et al., 2018). Though bark tanning was practised successfully, the factory could not survive long. After the partition of the

Indian subcontinent, 30 tanneries were built, which increased to 343 later (Khan, 2017). The Hazaribagh tannery is one of them that was established on the bank of the Buriganga River. The presence of high population numbers, unsanitary conditions, poorly regulated industrial discharges, and untreated domestic and industrial effluents have resulted in highly polluted rivers worldwide, posing a significant threat to river users, groundwater, and associated water supply systems (Tinni et al., 2015). As protection measures have never been a concern of this high-risk industry by the owner of the industries, liquid effluents and solid waste eventually find their path to the capital’s main river Buriganga through sewers and adjacent regions (RAPID, 2019; Karim et al., 2013). Policymakers first discussed the relocation necessity in 1991, but it was impossible to properly implement the strategies in the city's heart (Mohiuddin et al., 2016; RAPID, 2019; Karim et al., 2013; Bhowmik, 2012).

Over time tanning industry at Hazaribag created tremendous environmental degradation due to the absence of proper treatment processes for heavy metals and other organic matters. China et al. (2020) highlight the significant impact of conventional tanning methods on the environment, including the generation of large amounts of solid and liquid waste, the release of hazardous chemicals, and high energy consumption. Different chemicals are considered during the tanning, and soaking processes,s like sodium sulfite, chromium sulfate, bactericides, ammonium sulfide, ammonium chloride, CaO, and different acids, are used regularly (Azom et al., 2012). During the processing, only 20% of chemicals are absorbed by leather, while the rest of the chemicals are found as wastes (WWPP, 2010). Hazaribag tanneries released 88 million tons of solid waste and 7.7 million litres of liquid manure daily (Azom et al., 2012). Discharge of these wastes directly into the environment contaminated the surrounding environment and ecosystems (Bhuiyan et al., 2010). 95% of the tanneries of Hazaribag had been established unplanned, where 60,000 tons of raw hides and skins were processed, releasing nearly 95,000 litres of effluents without any treatment. The wastes released from tanneries have contaminated the Buriganga River severely for the last forty-five years (Rasul and Khan, 2006).

The government of Bangladesh introduced several strategies regarding the betterment of the surrounding condition of Tanneries, but nothing became fruitful (Sarker, 2013). As a result, the government relocated the tannery industry from Hazaribag to Savar in April 2017, leaving a deep scar on the environment and society (RAPID, 2019). However, around 17.30 acres of land were acquired, and the shifting of the tanneries to Savar was initiated in 1993. In 2001, the High court of Bangladesh finally ordered the factories to act regarding pollution control within one year (Bhowmik, 2012; Bhowmik, 2011; Sarker, 2013). In 2002, the relocation policy was established by the government. The industry owners and the government signed an agreement for 40% financial assistance regarding relocation expenses on 23rd October 2003 (Islam, 2018). After many bureaucratic delays, the government targeted to complete the project by June 2016, announcing that 80% of the project’s core cost would be beard by the government and the rest by the owners (Bhowmik, 2012). On 16th October 2016, the deadline was finalized to be moved to December same year (Bhowmik, 2012). The implication of the relocation was finally done with the severe delay by the concerned authorities on April 2017 with strict legislative measures (Bhowmik, 2012). While relocating, there were many negotiations and compensations with the industry owner, workers, and surrounding people living in the tannery (Khan, 2017). This relocation impacted the Hazaribag area inhabitants’ lives, environment, and socio-economic perspectives.

1.2. Purposes of the study

The tannery industry's environmental and human health impact has been a longstanding concern. During the last decades, several studies have addressed the heavy metal contamination, the effect of tannery waste or environmental quality analysis of Hazaribag tannery (Koukal et al., 2004; Hasan et al., 2019; Hossain, 2008; Huq, 1998; Fatema et al., 2018; Mohiuddin et al., 2017). But no studies have been conducted on the environmental assessment after the tannery has been relocated (Azom et al., 2012; Hasnat et al., 2013). Identifying the consequences of the long and exhausting relocation process is critical (Rahman, 2022). The study fills a gap in the literature by presenting the scenario after the relocation to address the impact of relocation in Hazaribag.

Following the affirmation, the study adopts a multidisciplinary approach to find out the impact of tannery relocation on the surrounding environment, social, economic, livelihood conditions, and institutional and stakeholder perception in the Hazaribag area after the relocation. Here in this study, the aspects describe the changes that occurred in the two distinctive periods when the tannery industry functioned at Hazaribag and after the relocation. Environmental resuscitation, though, cannot be possible in the short period after relocation; the noticeable changes were assessed from the residents' experience of Hazaribag. The study can contribute to a complete understanding of the impact of tannery relocation in the area and provide important insights for future policy decisions.

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1. Study Area

Hazaribag is a Thana of Dhaka District located at 23.734722°N to 90.369444°E, having a total area of 3.58 km2 (BBS, 2014). The area is shown in Figure 01, which is located along the Buriganga River. A total of 249 tanneries, comprising 95% of the Bangladesh tanneries, were previously found here for more than 46 years (Huq, 1998). This more than 50-acre industrialized area is surrounded by Dhaka’s prestigious residential areas, i.e., Dhanmondi, Rayerbazar, and Lalbag. After the relocation, the site is not yet undertaken any significant planning. The Hazaribag tannery industrial area is now considered a brownfield (Khan, 2017). In the Bangladesh government's Detailed Area Plan (DAP), the Hazaribag area is planned to furnish a residential area after the relocation. Still, the authority has not yet undertaken any measures (Khan, 2017).

Figure 1.Study Area Map

2.2. Data collection and analysis

This study focuses on field investigation and data collection. The quantitative data collection questionnaire survey was used, as well as the qualitative data KII and FGD. In order to collect the data, random surveys were conducted where an open-ended questionnaire was used. Before beginning this study, two co-authors conducted a reconnaissance survey to understand better the various issues involved. The field survey was conducted at the beginning of January 2020 when there was no effect of Covid in Bangladesh, so the data do not include any impact due to the Covid pandemic. An extensive literature review was also carried out in order to identify the pertinent issues. A random survey of 100 stakeholders from the Hazaribagh tannery industry who worked or are still working in the tannery industry was conducted. The interviews were conducted in Bengali.

Regarding ethical standards, the Helsinki declaration was followed to ensure ethical principles (Association, 2009). (Association, 2009). Furthermore, ethical issues were appropriately maintained during data collection, such as providing respondents with a consent letter stating that their participation was voluntary, that their personal information would be kept confidential, and that no findings would be presented individually. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques were also employed, with 5 Group Discussions (GD) with local residents and 3 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with various tannery owners (Figure 02).

Figure 2.Data collection of the study area (a) observing drainage conditions at Hazaribag while group discussion, (b) collecting information from the local businessman, (c) observing Buriganga river while survey, and (d) KII with a tannery owner.

Data Collection Number Purpose and Respondent
Target group survey 100 Inhabitants or stakeholders of the Hazaribagh tannery industry who were present in both phases (during the tannery industry at Hazaribagh and after the relocation of the tannery industry to Savar).
Field Reconnaissance 1 Field reconnaissance was conducted to identify the potential areas which were impacted due to tannery relocation. Different livelihood groups who were linked with the tannery industry for the conduction of Group Discussions (GDs) later.
Group Discussions (GDs) 2 Group Discussions (GDs) were conducted to identify the social and environmental impacts of tannery relocations. Different GDs were conducted on different livelihood groups especially those directly or indirectly linked with the tannery industry. A maximum of ten members have participated in most of the GDs.
Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) 3
Table 1.Data Collection and Purpose

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1. Personal information of the respondents

Among the total respondents, 52% were male, and the rest, 48%, were female, where the maximum number of respondents (62%) were elderly (aged over 40). The average monthly income was 15,001-25,000, and 80% lived in the pucca house. 32% of respondents were labourers,s an,d 36 were small businessmen (e.g. storekeepers), and the remaining were housewives (5%) and tannery owners (16%). Though 19% of people had no formal education, the rest had an educational background.

Variable Type Frequency
Gender Male 52
Female 48
Education Illiterate 19
Primary 36
SSC 25
HSC 19
Graduation 11
Housing Condition Katcha/Slum 14
Semi-Pucca 26
Pucca 60
Occupation Small Businessman 36
Housewife 5
Labour 32
Tannery Owner 03
Tannery Worker 24
Age Group <18 14
18-40 54
41-59 20
60+ 12
Monthly Income <10,000 16
10,001-15,000 14
15,001-25,000 41
25,001-50,000 15
>50,000 14
Table 2.Personal Information of the Respondents

3.2. Environmental Impact

3.2.1. Outdoor environment and drainage

Figure 03 shows that the outdoor environment and drainage system in the Hazaribagh area was in a worse situation due to chemical wastes, as reported by nearly 100% of the respondents. Even the people of the site could not walk on the roads alongside the drains, which coincides with Azom et al. (2012) and Karim et al. (2013) findings. The study found that the tanning industry was a significant source of pollution in the area, with high levels of heavy metals and organic compounds in soil, water, and air, which aligns with the findings of Parvin et al. (2022), Paul et al. (2022), Rahman et al. (2022). Hossain et al. (2021) provide a comprehensive review of the environmental pollution caused by the tanning industry.

Though the outdoor environment quality of Hazaribagh has improved after the tannery relocation, the quality is still not good enough. Rahman et al. (2022) demonstrated that the new tannery city, Savar, has started to increase its metal concentration (Cr, Pb, Mn, etc.) more than the recommended value. Some people in the surrounding areas of Hazaribagh feel the environment is right compared with their previous worse experiences, which supports the result of Hossain et al. (2021). According to people’s responses, about 35% of people said this is better than before, and 15% are satisfied with the present situation. Besides, 5% of people are not satisfied with the condition and reply to a worse situation. The findings of Haque et al. (2019) are closely related to our results, which highlighted the government's decision to relocate the tanneries to Savar to ensure environmental sustainability. Shifting the tannery industry frees the area from discharging wastes of alkaline beans and acidic tan into the residential area. However, municipal and household wastes still obstruct the creation of a healthy and beautiful outdoor environment. Those wastes make their way to the area’s drainage system, thus obstructing the potentiality of creating a healthy and beautiful outdoor environment after the tannery relocation (Source: GDs and KIIs). On the other hand, the area was highly contaminated by prior activities, hazardous substances, and pollutants. Yet the pollution has not reverted to a fresh environment, and the area is considered a brownfield (Khan, 2017). While the relocation of the industry has led to some improvements in the outdoor environmental quality of the area, the lingering effects of pollution emphasize the need for continued monitoring and remediation efforts to ensure a healthy and sustainable outdoor environment in Hazaribag.

Figure 3.Change in Outdoor Environment and Drainage in Hazaribag

3.2.2. Odour in the surrounding area

During the tannery function, the area’s odour was so intolerable and extreme that even the people living there and working in tanneries felt sick. Figure 04 represents about 80% of respondents as the worse situation and 20% as unsatisfactory. Many people had reported that the outsider people often vomited because of the foul odour of the tannery when they passed through the tannery area. Mainly, during summer (April-June), the odour spread surrounding Hazaribag regions due to high organic matter decomposition. China et al. (2020) indicate that the odour generated from tanneries affects physical and mental health. The reference study notes that the leather industry generates various pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, and organic compounds, that pose a significant threat to the environment. Uddin et al. (2022) found that air pollution increases during the soaking process and leads to a worse odour. This finding is consistent with this study, which found that the area's odour was intolerable and extreme during tannery operations. Bad smelt is mostly created due to some composite wastes that are produced from the tannery, especially alkaline, having a large number of dissolved and suspended metals (Source: GDs and KIIs). This bad smelt generated from the area not only affects physical health but also deteriorates the mental health of the human being. Muhammad and Haque (2012) argued that both the mental and physical health of the tannery workers is poor than the residents of that area.

On the other hand, due to tannery relocation, respondents argued as the worse situation was diminished somewhat, where 15% replied for unsatisfactory and 35% for good, and the rest 50% for satisfactory in the sense of odour. After the relocation, the odour condition is far better than in the experience. Also, air quality is improved compared to the previous time. Still, a few respondents of the study revealed that the air quality of the area is not improved up to the mark as expected. People still felt bad odour in this area that made them unsatisfactory, but people hardly reported vomiting after the tannery relocation. One of the GD respondents said that, apart from the improvement of people's physical and mental health, the relocation of the tannery industry from a residential area like Hazaribag will help to improve children’s as well as students’ mental health.

Figure 4.Change of Odor Condition in Hazaribag

3.2.3. Condition of surface water

For the processing of leather, a lot of salt and other chemicals like hydrogen sulfides were produced as waste that may badly affect surface water quality (e.g., creating bad odour and taste, high hardness, and turbidity with toxicity) (Huq, 1998). Besides, a huge number of suspended materials (hairs from leather, fleshings, suspensions of lime, etc.) increase the turbidity of surface water. Resulting in the hamper of the water ecosystem and destroying fish species, fauna, and flora. Buriganga River is the best example said by the respondents (Mondal et al., 2014). Besides, sulfides are highly toxic to aquatic fishes and human health that were generated from tannery wastes. Chromium that is used in the tanning process could be highly toxic for the human body and water species, as there has a probability of forming highly toxic hexavalent chromium. Parvin et al. (2022) found that the Hazaribag tannery area is one of the major sources to produce chromium that feeds the water bodies of Dhaka. Additionally, other dissolved and suspended solids, chlorides, and ammonia were being discharged into different adjacent water bodies which decreased the water quality. But the respondents revealed that the pollution trend for the tannery is starting to decrease after relocating the industry, and concerned authorities are trying to restore the Buriganga River water quality (Source: KIIs).

As the Buriganga River is just beside the Hazaribag area, the tannery wastes somehow drained into Buriganga and thus polluted a lot. There were 343 tannery industries situated in Hazaribagh that discharged about 21,600 cubic meters of liquid wastes per day, including harmful effluents such as Chromium, lead, sulfur, ammonium, salt, and others (Huq, 1998). People reported that the water was black in color and had a nasty smell when the tannery functioned. The Hazaribagh tannery complex and other industries, primarily the glue and paint industries located in the same general area, have affected water and air quality in the poorly drained area (Azom et al., 2012). Disposal of a heavy quantity of liquid and solid waste in the Buriganga River without treatment severely destroyed the river ecosystem (Hasan et al., 2019; Huq, 1998; Tinni et al., 2015). Respondents revealed that people who are using Buriganga river water for different purposes (e.g., bathing, washing clothes, dishes, etc.) are facing different health problems like respiratory illnesses, asthma, skin diseases, etc. (Source: GDs and KIIs).

Islam (2018) showed that the waste discharge to the Buriganga River had decreased a lot after the tannery relocation, and so the ultimate BOD, TSS, NH3-N, NO3-N, and PO4 concentrations have decreased. However, the condition of DO and chlorophyll-a along the river has not improved even after the relocation (Islam, 2018; Rafi et al., 2021). Presently Buriganga is reviving from the deteriorated phase; it has undergone many years of pollution. The study by Paul et al. (2022) provides an overview of recent advances in the application of nanomaterials in wastewater treatment which can be useful for the relocated Savar Tannery industry. People of the riverside area have reported that the water’s color has been improving in the last three years. They use the river water only for bathing during the monsoon period, but not in other seasons or for other purposes. People of the locality even found fish in the river after many years.

3.3. Socio-economic Impact

3.3.1. Migration and house rent

The relocation of the tannery impacted the inhabitants of Hazaribag as they were mostly tannery workers. During the tannery establishment, many people shifted to work in tanneries in the Hazaribag area from outside the capital, mostly from the southern part of Bangladesh. Some of them shifted to their native place after the relocation due to unemployment problems. From the field survey, it is found that house rent, both sublet and the shared room, has fallen from 1500 taka (Bangladeshi currency) to 1000 taka after relocation (Figure 05). Individuals who were associated with the tannery industry intended to shift their residence from the surrounding Hazaribag to their new workstation. Again, single room and small flat rent also fell from 6000 takas to 5000 takas and 15000 takas to 10000 takas respectively. As people who live here with their family members are either shifted and/or the daily income of the present people has fallen then before. But the luxury flat rent has risen in the selected area.

This is identified for better facilities than before as the main cause and replacement of elite group people for better environmental conditions. The study by Fatemi and Rahman (2015) highlights the need for sustainable urban development to address the issue of brownfield sites in Hazaribag, which can have a positive impact on the overall life quality of the local inhabitants. Insight should be given into how sustainable urban development can be achieved in areas like Hazaribag, which has been affected by unsustainable practices.

Figure 5.Change in House Rent in Hazaribag

3.3.2. Employment and livelihood pattern change and impact on Local Economy

The relocation of the tannery has a significant impact on the livelihood of the workers (Sarker and Akter, 2018). Many people became unemployed, and a lot of them got involved in professions of their non-expertise fields. After the relocation, all the workers did not get a job at the relocated Savar tannery, supported by Sarker and Akter (2018). The findings of the study show that the overall change in livelihood is adverse to the people of Hazaribag. Figure 06 shows that 30% of people were unemployed and migrated from the Hazaribag area after the relocation. People who worked in the tannery on a part-time or contractual basis in the peak season has failed to manage their job in the Savar tannery after relocation. Besides, some migrated in search of new jobs as there were very limited or no livelihood options in the area. 15% started working as rickshaw pullers, 15% started tea-stall, and 20% started working as servants, which are not fields of their expertise, so they are not earning well. Only about 20% of people got a job at the relocated Savar tannery, and of them, only a few, about 1%, were kept at Hazaribag at the old tannery to do the post-production functions. These people are facing obstacles at Savar tannery, like transportation problems and conflicts with the local workers, which are making their job life miserable. Due to the utmost traffic jam within Dhaka city, people whose workplaces are far from their residence are difficult to manage tight work schedules as they have to start their journey very early in the morning to join the office within the time frame and too late to return home. As a result, they could not manage enough family time.

Figure 6.Change in Employment and Livelihood Pattern

Hazaribag tanneries were one of the important considerations for the local as well as the national economy. The economic activities, especially the local economy of the area, are being impacted due to the tannery relocation. The economic activities decreased enormously both for local labour and business sectors (Source: GDs and KIIs). Sarker and Akter (2018) found that due to the shifting of tanneries from Hazaribag to Savar, many tannery owners faced extensive losses. Since no or very few employment opportunities limit the local economy of the area, respondents added that not only factory owners but also many workers had to take a loan from different banks or NGOs, which lead them to the vicious cycle of debt. The findings shed light on the inadequate human resources management practices in the tannery industry, which further worsen the situation for workers. The study's findings emphasize the need to improve the working conditions of tannery workers and implement policies that support their job security and social protection. Many workers became unemployed, and some had to switch to non-expertise fields after the relocation, supported by Sarker and Akter (2018).

Figure 7.Change in Local Economy and Business

Figure 07 elicited all the business sector depends on tannery employers like rickshaw puller, Tea stall, Hawker and Grocery Shop income have tremendously fallen. Rickshaw puller income has decreased by 5000 taka than before, Tea stall income has fallen 15000 taka less than before, Hawker income 8000 taka less than before, and Grocery shop income 10000 taka less than before. Due to relocation, people doing small businesses faced a significant setback. The monthly income of all groups of people in the area has decreased after the tannery relocation as there is now a vacuum in the economic activities of this area. The government of Bangladesh is planning to redevelop the Hazaribag area through a Detail Area Plan (DAP) that needs a lot of investment and time consuming (Khan, 2017).

3.4. Institutional Issue

3.4.1. Stakeholder’s conflicts

Shakil et al. (2016) have examined some empirical evidence of the policy measures for relocating the tannery industry. They found some implementation snags and extreme stakeholder negotiation behind stakeholder conflict in the tannery industry of Dhaka. One of the respondents illustrated during group discussions (GDs) that the tannery industry owners cannot cope with the new situation after the relocation. They cannot provide proper job security to the worker and labour groups as well in the new location.

Moreover, conflicting issues and social unrest happened when community consent had not been addressed while undertaking the decision on tannery relocation (Shakil et al., 2016). Some tanneries had to shut off as they did not have enough opportunity to shift at Savar. Even Some tanneries could not pay the pending wages of their labourers (Source: KIIs and GDs). Labour groups protested against the owner for justice, which was promised by the authority (Figure 08). According to Human Rights Watch (2012), the government did this action to ensure environmental sustainability but selected policy options for the tannery relocation without considering alternatives and adequate research about probable further risk and socio-economic sustainability. KII respondents said that due to the new environment and lack of facilities at Savar, they could not make perfect production and could not ensure the worker’s monthly salaries. However, the condition was a bit different a few years ago in Hazaribag.

Figure 8.Poster of Labor Protest Against the Owner in front of the Main Gate of the Closed Industry at Hazaribag

However, the peak time of the tanneries is Eid ul Adha, the biggest Muslim festival. At this time, owners of these tanneries were trying to recruit lots of workers with low salaries and fired them as soon as the peak time was over. Besides, several well-established tannery factories were providing some facilities. But smaller ones were not in good condition with the relocation. According to KIIs and GDs respondents, the demand for leather is increasing, but the market for raw leather has been decreasing in trend from the last decades. As a result, local sellers and dealers of the raw leather were very unsatisfied with tannery owners, as they had to sell their raw leather to the tannery owner at a low price. Where tannery owners tended to sell the processing leather with a big profit, continuing this process created conflicts between dealers and tannery owners. Sometimes, a few labour rights organizations tried to raise the issue, but this matter was covered up by the influence of powerful owners. These situations created agitation among the workers as well (Source: KIIs and GDs).

However, as our study found, the decision was made without adequate research and consideration of the socio-economic sustainability and potential consequences for the workers and labour labours. The conflicts between tannery owners and local sellers and dealers of raw leather, as well as laborlabourts organizations, are also mentioned in the study by Sarker and Akter (2018). The conflicting issues and social unrest mentioned in this study occurred when community consent was not addressed while making decisions on tannery relocation, and the authorities selected policy options for the relocation without considering alternatives and adequate research about probable further risks and socio-economic sustainability.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The impact of relocating the tannery in Hazaribag is complex, with both positive and negative effects on the environment and society that must be carefully managed and planned by the authorities. There have been significant improvements in the surrounding environment and air quality, as well as a reduction in population density and the cost of living. This has led to a more comfortable and convenient lifestyle for residents. However, the relocation has had a severe negative impact on the economic and employment situation, with many people either leaving the area or being left unemployed. Additionally, some have had to take up jobs outside their area of expertise. Unfortunately, the government has not adequately managed the post-relocation situation, and urgent action is needed to address these issues. While the tannery relocation has had a positive impact on the environment, it has had a significant negative impact on society. The findings suggest that tannery relocation has the potential to mitigate environmental pollution and improve public health, but the unintended consequences of relocation also need to be carefully considered and monitored.

However, it should be done in a way that considers the broader socioeconomic implications and considers the interests of all stakeholders, including the workers, labour groups, and local communities. Therefore, a more comprehensive and collaborative approach that involves all stakeholders is necessary to ensure sustainable and equitable development. The findings of this study can inform the legislative authority's understanding of the environmental possibilities of future eco-cities and help plan for a better outcome. Effective and interdisciplinary collaboration among the government, NGOs, and relevant stakeholders in the area is essential to improving the situation quickly.

5. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS

The study's limitations include reliance on respondents' perceptions and opinions and not conducting chemical analysis. Continuous monitoring of the change is needed to find the impact in the long run. The further improvement of the environmental and social condition of the area needs to be assessed from time to time to observe the long-term impact, as this study was within 3-4 years after the relocation.

Acknowledgment

Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alamin. We praise and glorify the Lord, Allah Subhanahu wa taala, as He should be praised and glorified. This research was a part of my MSc study at the Institute of Water and Flood Management, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. The authors would like to thank all the Hazaribag area respondents for their cordial support during data collection.

Data Availability: Data can be shared upon request.

Funding: No funding was received for this study.

Conflict of interest: Authors declare no conflict of interest.