International Journal of social Sciences and Economic Review 2020-08-04T06:40:41+00:00 Editor Journal Open Journal Systems <p><strong>International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic review (IJSSER) (</strong>Online ISSN:2706-9346) is a double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal that encourages the latest research on the social sciences, and Economic globally. The aims of the journal are to publish quality research and provide access to international libraries to promote the original content in the field of social sciences and economics. The journal adheres to the double-blind peer review process to maintain quality and originality. IJSSER is a non-profit, academic journal that accepts the high quality theoretical or empirical works throughout the world that contribute genuine knowledge and research in the fields of social sciences and economics. In the 21st century, overcoming such problems seems to be challenging for educators and practitioners.</p> The Moderating Role Of Subjective Norms Between Online Shopping Behaviour And Its Determinants 2020-08-04T06:40:41+00:00 Anam Bhatti Hamza Akram <p><strong>Purpose of the study: </strong>Internet buying is raising phenomena rapidly these days. A peep in the exponent progress of players in the trade specifies that there is still an enormous reservoir of marketplace potential for e-commerce. The convenience of internet buying raised the interest of sellers and traders to attention to this area. The advanced level of the internet has changed the nature of trade. Internet buying is critical in these days, and it is associated directly with consumers. Therefore, the present study determines the relationship between risks and online shopping behavior while moderating by subjective norms.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp; Data was collected by students that buying online, 550 sets of questionnaires used for valid coding and analyzing analysis. Collected data analyzed by using SPSS and Smart PLS to test hypotheses. Results reveal that risks have decreasing effects, and subjective norms enhance online shopping behavior.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings: </strong>The way of information sharing has been changed, domestically, and globally. E-commerce changed our life and the smooth, best solution for a hectic lifestyle—furthermore, this study contributing to knowledge and this topic understanding. The deductive approach and research were quantitative. In addition, the main aim of this study to examine the influence of financial, convenience, privacy risks influence online shopping behavior with the moderating role of subjective norms.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> The scholars put their best enthusiasm to contribute to OSB, but static some boundaries in this study. The study attention on online users only, scholars, but disregard non-users. Coming reviews should focus on consumers and non-users and deliberate other elements. In this study, use moderator, upcoming studies can study mediator.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> Convenience, financial, privacy risks, online shopping behavior, and subjective norms are the variables of current research. The present study reflects a situation for upcoming researchers who want to study and interested in this area. It can be inferences because of its consequences. This research will be helpful for Govt. to make policies and sellers.</p> 2020-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Estimate of Average Cost of Hypertension and its catastrophic effect on the people living with hypertension: Patients’ perception from two Hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria 2020-08-04T06:40:41+00:00 Idris Abubakar Obansa S.A.J <p><strong>Purpose of </strong>the<strong> study: </strong>The study was motivated by the high prevalence of hypertension and its associated costs of financing drugs to treating the disease. Hypertension has become a source of worry to the sufferers and caregivers given its direct and indirect cost implications. The study specifically estimated the direct average cost of treating hypertension and verified its catastrophic effect on the sufferers in Nigeria.</p> <p><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><strong>Methodology: </strong>To achieve the objective, the study undertook the review of related literature on the burden of hypertension. It utilized the primary method of data collection by administering structured questionnaires to the target respondents in the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital and National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Data were descriptively analyzed using frequency and percentage with the aid of SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Main findings:</strong> The result revealed that the average annual cost attributable to hypertension treatment is N145, 086.12 per patient. The study documented that 191(82 percent) patients undertook personal health spending. Hypertension financing was discovered to be catastrophic among 30.5 percent of the least income patients. Therefore, it concluded that the average cost of treating hypertension was high among urban dwellers and catastrophic among the least earners.<em><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></em></p> <p><strong>Research Implications: </strong>The findings will be relevant for the policy framework for government relating to healthcare financing and the establishment of intervention schemes that will alleviate the burdens associated with hypertension among the sufferers. Health planners and administrators will immensely benefit from the study as the study revealed the knowledge of treating hypertension for planning purposes and reference points for both researchers and academics.<strong><em><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></em></strong></p> <p><strong>Novelty of the study:&nbsp;</strong>Knowledge relating to the direct cost of treating hypertension annually for intervention purposes is limited. Therefore, to touch lightly upon this, the study attempted an estimation of the average annual direct cost of treating hypertension and its associated burdens to the sufferers through a survey investigation. Findings, therefore, will advance the existing knowledge on the burden of hypertension and the policy of healthcare interventions.</p> 2020-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stimulating Organizational Citizenship Behavior by Applying Organizational Commitment and Satisfaction 2020-08-04T06:40:41+00:00 Aram H. Massoudi Alaa S. Jameel Abd Rahman Ahmad <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong> This study aims to apply organizational commitment and job satisfaction as an indicator to stimulate organizational citizenship behaviours.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The data collected by a questionnaire survey conducted among a group of hotel employees in Baghdad, Iraq. The 200 questionnaires distributed, the researchers received 149, were valid responses. The data were analyzed by AMOS software after ensuring validity, Reliability, and model fit.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong> The results revealed that organizational commitment and job satisfaction play a positive and influential role in changing the organizational citizenship behaviours among hotel employees. Also, organizational commitment has a stronger impact on improving the behaviour of employees than job satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> The study contributes to human resource managers as it reveals the influential role of firms' commitment and job satisfaction on altering staff behaviours towards organizational citizenship. Therefore, it is understood that more variables need to be considered, such as psychological contract and employees' empowerment.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> The finding can fill the gap in the literature related to this article in the Iraqi setting, where studies about organizational citizenship is not existing in this context.</p> 2020-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Regional Disparities In Human Development: The Case Of Moroccan Regions 2020-08-04T06:40:41+00:00 Nour Eddine Aguenane <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong> This study has three objectives:&nbsp;a)&nbsp;to&nbsp;draw&nbsp;up a typology of the 10&nbsp;regions&nbsp;of Morocco&nbsp;according&nbsp;to their&nbsp;level&nbsp;of&nbsp;human&nbsp;development;&nbsp;b)&nbsp;to&nbsp;develop&nbsp;a synthetic regional indicator, and&nbsp;c)&nbsp;to&nbsp;measure&nbsp;the&nbsp;extent&nbsp;of regional&nbsp;disparities&nbsp;in&nbsp;terms&nbsp;of&nbsp;human&nbsp;development.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The analysis uses statistical indicators from the household panel survey conducted in 2017 by the National Human Development Observatory in Morocco. The Principal Component Analysis (conducted using the SPSS statistics&nbsp;V23&nbsp;software)&nbsp;is used&nbsp;to draw a typology of regions according to their level of human development. It is also used to develop a regional composite indicator. As regards&nbsp;the measurement of&nbsp;the degree of regional inequalities, the&nbsp;Gini&nbsp;index&nbsp;is adopted.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong> The typological cartography and the composite index developed showed the coexistence of three strata of regions with three levels of human development: low, medium, and high. The calculation of a fairly strong Gini index raises the gravity of these inequalities. The main sources of inequality are an inequitable distribution of living standards and unbalanced access to basic social amenities.</p> <p><strong>Research implications</strong><strong>:</strong> Today, in Morocco, an ad hoc committee responsible for the new development model is collecting, arranging, and structuring the recommendations of the various actors and drawing up their conclusions. The present study is a contribution that aims to place the human being at the heart of this model. The eradication of regional disparities in terms of human development, particularly in terms of standard of living and access to basic equipment is a priority.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality:</strong> This paper examines regional disparities through the prism of human development. The works which have dealt with this subject at the level of Morocco have focused on income as a standard for measuring inequalities. This study does not abandon income, but it aims to be multidimensional as soon as it integrates other no less decisive dimensions on people’s lives.</p> 2020-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Substance Abuse on Nigeria’s Economic Performance 2020-08-04T06:40:41+00:00 Jossy Ijie Ikhayere Abdurrauf Idowu Babalola Muhammad Yelwa <p><strong>Purpose of </strong>the<strong> study: </strong>This study investigated the effect of substance abuse on the real growth rate in Nigeria between 1993 and 2017. The study specifically examined the period-based impact of substance abuse prevalence and rehabilitated individual drug addicts on the actual growth rate of the Nigerian economy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Autoregressive distributed lag and co-integration/bound test techniques were employed to analyze the data obtained. In between, correlation analysis and preliminary tests were carried out.</p> <p><strong>Main findings:</strong> The study found out that substance abuse and rehabilitated drug individuals have a significant impact on economic performance. While substance abuse has a significant negative impact, rehabilitated, individual drug addicts have a significant positive impact. However, in the long run, there was no indication of a significant impact on the Nigerian economy.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong>This study will be of use to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and most drug control programs in many countries. The Ministries of Economic Planning to examine the extent to which drug abuse has had an economic impact.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> Economic analysis showcasing the effect of drug abuse prevalence and rehabilitated individuals on economic performance is quite scanty. This work creates a good reference point in areas of health economics and macroeconomics generally. It allows readers to know the genesis of drug trafficking and abuse in Nigeria.</p> 2020-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##